BETA

Stone Type (Commercial)

Granite

Any visibly granular, igneous rock consisting mostly of feldspars and quartz accompanied by one or more dark minerals. (ASTM C1528) The texture is typically homogeneous but may be gneissic or porphyritic. Some dark granular igneous rocks, though not geologically granite, are included in the definition. (ASTM C119)

Synonyms: 
Anthrosite
Basalt
Diabase
Diorite
Gabbro
Gneiss

Limestone

A sedimentary rock composed principally of calcium carbonate (the mineral calcite) or the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium (the mineral dolomite), or a mixture of the two. (ASTM C1528) Recrystallized limestone, compact microcrystalline limestone, and travertine that are capable of taking a polish are also included in the category commercial marble and may be sold as either limestone or marble. (ASTM C119)

Synonyms: 
calcarenite
coquina
dolomite
oolitic limestone
travertine

Marble

A metamorphic rock resulting from the recrystallization of limestone, comprising crystallized grains of calcite (calcium carbonate) or dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate), or both. Also, rocks ranging from pure carbonate to those containing very little carbonate, yet having compositions and textures that permit them to be polished. (ASTM C1528) All stone here defined as marble must be capable of taking a
polish. (ASTM C119)

Synonyms: 
Limestone marble
Serpentine
Travertine
Onyx

Quartz-based

Rock, sedimentary in origin, that has high contents of quartz and silica. (ASTM C1528) Includes sandstone, bluestone, brownstone, quartzite, and siltstone.

Synonyms: 
Sandstone
Bluestone
Quartzite
Brownstone
Siltstone
Conglomerate

Slate

A microcrystalline, metamorphic rock commonly derived from shale, composed mostly of micas, chlorite, and quartz. (ASTM C1528) The micaceous minerals have a subparallel orientation and thus impart strong cleavage to the rock which allows the latter to be split into thin but tough sheets. (ASTM C119) Includes shale, a laminated, indurated rock which is over two-thirds clay-sized minerals. Shales progressively grade into slate. (ASTM C119)

Synonyms: 
Shale
Argillite

Other

There are a number of stones that are infrequently used. Some semiprecious stones such as jade are cut and used as dimension stone. They would most commonly be used as a contrast or accent in connection with other dimension stone. (ASTM C119) Includes alabaster, greenstone, schist, serpentine (commercial definition), soapstone, and sometimes travertine.

Synonyms: 
Alabaster
Greenstone
Schist
Serpentine
Soapstone
Travertine