The following case study is part of a forthcoming NPS handbook on climate change entitled “Climate Change and Cultural Resources: Impact Assessments and Case Studies.”  The original author is Caitlin Smith.

Tyuonyi and Talus House, photo courtesy of Sallie King

Tyuonyi and Talus House, photo courtesy of Sallie King/NPS

In the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico, Bandelier National Monument stands as one of the rich­est collections of cultural history in the American Southwest. Bandelier’s hu­man history reaches back over 10,000 years. Remains of Ancestral Pueblo and Spanish settlements are evident through­out the park and modern day Pueblo people still have strong ties to the land ( 2011, history and culture).

However, the archeological sites and remains that Bandelier is known for are in­creasingly threatened by a dynamically changing landscape. Climate changes such as higher temperatures, intensified aridity, altered plant species ranges, extreme precipitation events, and insect outbreaks (Loehman 2010) are expected to have drastic impacts to the park’s sensitive natural and cultural resources. Many of these changes are already being felt in the forms of raging wildfires, drought, flash flood­ing, and soil erosion that jeopardize many of Bandelier’s precious archeological sites (Saunders and Easley 2006).

Trail at Tsankawi

Trail at Tsankawi, NPS photo

The story of the people and places that grew up in the region that is now Bandelier National Monument is very much a story underwritten by land use and climate change. Historical climate data indicates that the region was once covered exten­sively by grass and more widely spaced trees prior to sheep and cattle grazing in the 1800s which largely denuded the landscape of its native grassland vegetation ( 2011, park management). Since then, fire-sensitive piñon and juniper trees have become established in unprecedented densities. As trees became more prolific, they became increasingly effective competitors for water and nutrients, thereby further reducing grassy ground cover (Allen 2010). Without the protective grass cover, runoff from intense summer thunderstorms erode the thin exposed soil surface, produc­ing poor conditions for shallow rooted grasses to re-establish. Soil erosion rates of nearly one centimeter per decade have been measured in the park and some areas are at risk to losing all of their remaining soil by the end of the century ( 2011, park management; Allen 2010).

These same processes of soil erosion in the Piñon-Juniper woodlands pose great threats to Bandelier’s cultural resources, including thousands of Ancestral Pueblo archeological sites. Archeological materials are scattered and lose their integrity as soils are eroded ( 2011, park management). Recent reports indicate that over 90% of inventoried archeological sites are being damaged by soil erosion (Allen 2010).

Fire blazes at Bandelier NM NPS photo

Fire blazes at Bandelier NM, NPS photo

Drought and fire regimes also have dynamic interacting effects on vegetation cover and influence the vulnerability of Bandelier’s cultural resources. While long term drought minimizes grass cover that feeds wildfire, it also provides ripe conditions for erosion. A burst of rain may increase vegetation growth (fuel) which, followed by a period of dryness, renders the area and its resources prone to wildfire. For ex­ample, in 2000 an extensive fire burned nearly all wooden homestead archeological sites at Bandelier (Saunders and Easley 2006). Areas denuded of vegetation by fire are then again more susceptible to erosion damage. As recently as July 2011, all areas of Bandelier National Monument were closed due to encroaching wildfire. The fire burned over 140,000 acres including more than 50% of the park. New Mexico’s summer monsoon season followed, raising concerns of flash flooding damage to fa­cilities and cultural resources ( 2011).

The Pueblo people have said, “We have learned from our ancestors how to honor the land. Their songs, stories, and spirits are part of this landscape, and we are the continuation of the story” ( 2010). It is in this same spirit of honor that park managers care for Bandelier’s cultural resources. The balance of climate and culture is the legacy of Bandelier, one that must be carried on in order to protect the trea­sures of the past for the benefit of the future.

Sources Cited:
1.  Allen, Craig D. “Runoff, Erosion, and Restoration Studies in Piñon-Juniper Woodlands of the South­eastern Jemez Mountains, US Geological Survey Fort Collins Science Center, 2010, p. 1-8.
2.  Loehman, Rachel. Understanding the science of climate change: Talking points -impacts to Arid Lands. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/NRR—2010/224. National Park Service: 2010, Fort Collins, Colorado.
3.  National Park Service, Bandelier National Monu­ment, Flash Flooding Concerns, last modified July 9, 2011,
4.  National Park Service, Bandelier National Monu­ment, History &Culture, last modified July 9, 2011,
5.  National Park Service, Bandelier National Monu­ment, Park Management, last modified July 9, 2011,
6.  Saunders, Stephan and Tom Easley, Losing Ground: Western National Parks Threatened by Climate Disruption, The Rocky Mountain Climate Organization, Natural Resource Defense Council, July 2006, p.14.
7.  Williams, Craig D. Allen, Constance I. Millar, Thomas W. Swetnam, Joel Michaelsen, Christopher J. Still, and Steven W. Leavitt, “Forest Responses to Increasing Aridity and Warmth in the Southwestern United States”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci­ences, December 14 2010, vol. 107, no. 50, p. 21289-21294.