H I S T O R I C L A N D S C A P E T Y P E S
1 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Concord was founded in 1855 and reflects the
nineteenth-century rural cemetery movement, in which burial grounds were places for
the dead as well as retreats for the living. Planned by Horace Cleveland and Robert
Morris Copeland, this historic designed landscape features winding paths, native woodlands
and a pond. As the resting place of many significant individuals — including Ralph
Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau and the Alcott family — Sleepy Hollow Cemetery
also could be considered a historic site. (Photo courtesy of Concord Free Public Library, Concord, MA.)
2 Established in 1754, the Templeton Common Burial Ground features grave markers
attributed to notable New England carvers, as well as mature trees, stone walls and a
terraced topography that contribute to the landscape’s character. The burial ground was not designed but, rather, evolved over time and reflects eighteenth- and nineteenth century attitudes toward death and burial. It is, therefore, a historic vernacular landscape.
3 A tobacco barn in Whately speaks to the town’s agricultural traditions and is part
of a historic vernacular landscape. In addition to providing open space and contributing
to community character, such landscapes reflect the impact of geography and climate on
land use, resulting in regional variations across the state, from the cranberry bogs of
southeastern Massachusetts to the dairy farms of the Berkshires
4 Hancock Shaker Village includes a complex of buildings, along with a working farm
and gardens — an ethnographic landscape that reflects the Shakers’ tenets of common
property, equality between the sexes, celibacy and pacifism. (Photo courtesy of Hancock Shaker
Village, Hancock, MA.)
5 Sometimes historic landscapes encompass large and complex urban areas. The
industrial landscape of Lawrence clearly demonstrates the interaction of humans with
the environment; textile companies controlled the Merrimack River with dams and
canals, providing power to the mills. The canals, industrial buildings and workers’
housing are all part of Lawrence’s extensive historic vernacular landscape.
6 Monument Park in downtown Fitchburg was dedicated in 1874 as a memorial to the city’s Civil War veterans. A historic designed landscape, this small urban park includes a monument at its center, as well as walking paths, plantings and a cast-iron perimeter fence.
7 Roads are more than just routes of travel; they may have historic associations and design features that make them significant as historic vernacular landscapes. The mature trees, gentle shoulder, and lack of curbing all contribute to the character of Foster Hill Road, the site of West Brookfield’s earliest European settlement, and influence the traveler’s experience.
8 Fort Phoenix, a historic site in Fairhaven, was a place of military activity in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 and the Civil War. The gunpowder magazine, parapet and cannons are reminders of the site’s past.
9 Naumkeag, a Stockbridge estate owned by The Trustees of Reservations, includes eight acres of landscaped grounds that showcase the modernist aesthetic of the landscape architect Fletcher Steele. A historic designed landscape, the grounds include several intimate “garden rooms” while also encompassing expansive views of the surrounding woodland, meadows and pastures. (Photo by Carol etsch, rom A Genius for Place, courtesy of Library of American Landscape History, Amherst, MA.)