Within the career field of cultural resource management, two occupational series have been identified as having the primary responsibility for guiding preservation and management of cultural landscapes: Historical Landscape Architect and Preservation Horticulturist [additional occupational series associated with cultural landscapes include Preservation Specialist (Cultural Landscapes), Preservation Gardener, Historical Craftsperson, and Historical Maintenance person, and are addressed within other career fields].

Following is a list of the competencies and the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform in this particular discipline at the Entry, Developmental, and Full Performance levels. The definitions are then followed by a list of the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to be effective at each level. The competencies and KSAs of the previous level(s) are also required at the next higher level.

Historical Landscape Architect (GS-0807)
A historical landscape architect is a specialist in the science and art of landscape architecture with advanced training in the principles, theories, concepts, methods, and techniques of preserving cultural landscapes. Cultural landscape preservation focuses on preserving a landscape’s physical attributes, biotic systems, and use when that use contributes to its historical significance.

Research, planning, and stewardship are the framework for the duties of a historical landscape architect. Research defines the features, values, and associations that make a landscape historically significant; planning identifies the issues and alternatives for long-term preservation; and stewardship involves activities such as condition assessment, maintenance, and training, and the historical landscape architect is the lead professional for these activities.

Preservation Law, Philosophy and Practice
Entry Level
Description: Upon entry at this level, the historical landscape architect possesses basic knowledge, skills, and abilities regarding the fields of landscape architecture and historic preservation. Based on assignments that are narrowly focused and detailed, and conducted under close and regular supervision, those knowledge, skills, and abilities are strengthened and broadened. Ideally, Entry Level historical landscape architects are professionally mentored and technically supervised by another historical landscape architect at the Developmental or Full Performance Level. Training is geared toward orienting the historical landscape architect to the agency’s organization and mission, and the cultural landscape preservation field and typically achieved by on-the-job experiences, close mentoring, and formal training regarding specialized topics.

    Assists in providing professional direction on historic preservation law, philosophy, and practice as they apply to cultural landscape management.

    Knowledge of the mission and objectives of the National Park Service including its enabling legislation.

    Basic knowledge of the origins, theories, principles, practices, and techniques of historic preservation, particularly as they apply to the preservation of cultural landscapes.

    Basic knowledge of federal cultural resource preservation legislation, policies, guidelines and standards, and procedures, particularly the National Historic Preservation Act and the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation, and National Park Service Management Policies and guidelines.


Developmental Level

Description: Advancement from Entry to Developmental Level occurs when the historical landscape architect demonstrates a sound understanding of the cultural landscape program, purpose, and products; possesses the knowledge, skills, and abilities identified at the Entry Level; and has exhibited an advanced understanding of the profession. The individual’s assignments are broader in scope and have a greater degree of complexity. At the Developmental Level, the historical landscape architect’s knowledge, skills, and abilities for project planning and implementation and interdisciplinary teamwork and coordination are strengthened. The individual works more independently, while remaining under the supervision of a senior professional historical landscape architect may technically supervise and mentor Entry Level professionals, while still being mentored by a Full Performance historical landscape architect. Developmental Level historical landscape architects also may begin to specialize in the field, and may assist in cultural resource program management and partnerships development. Training is geared toward project management and specialized topics regarding cultural landscape preservation and typically achieved by on-the-job experiences, mentoring, and formal course work.

    Provides professional direction on historic preservation law, philosophy, and practice as they apply to cultural landscape management.

    Knowledge of the origins, theories, principles, practices, and techniques of historic preservation, particularly as they apply to the preservation of cultural landscapes.

    Knowledge of federal cultural resource preservation legislation, policies, guidelines, and standards, particularly the National Historic Preservation Act, the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation, and National Park Service Management Policies and guidelines.

    Knowledge and understanding of related resource management disciplines, such as history, architecture, archeology, ethnography, and the natural sciences to ensure their proper consideration in research, planning, and treatment.

    Ability to interpret and apply current laws, policies, guidelines, standards, and technical information necessary to conduct project reviews, and provide technical assistance and information regarding cultural landscape management.

    Ability to apply knowledge of current national issues and laws affecting historic properties, such as the Architectural Barriers Act, life safety, fire and health codes, and sustainable design in project work.

    Skill in preparing and reviewing Section 106 compliance documents.


Full Performance Level

Description: Advancement from Developmental to Full Performance Level occurs when the historical landscape architect demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of the cultural landscape program, purpose, and products and possesses the knowledge, skills, and abilities such that the individual is considered an expert in the cultural landscape preservation field. At the Full Performance Level, the historical landscape architect’s knowledge, skills, and abilities in the field become more specialized, and project and program management skills are advanced. Assignments are broad in scope and complex with the individual working independently. The historical landscape architect may technically supervise and mentor Entry and Developmental Level professionals. Full Performance historical landscape architects continue to specialize in the field, and may be responsible for cultural resource program management and partnerships development. Training is geared toward complex project and program management regarding cultural landscape preservation and typically achieved through formal course work.

    Provides professional direction on historic preservation law, philosophy, and practice as they apply to cultural landscape management.

    Thorough knowledge of the origins, theories, principles, practices, and techniques of historic preservation, particularly as they apply to the preservation of cultural landscapes.

    Thorough knowledge of federal cultural resource preservation legislation, policies, guidelines, and standards, particularly the National Historic Preservation Act, the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation, and National Park Service Management Policies and guidelines.

    Expertise in the interpretation and application of current laws, policies, guidelines, standards, and technical information necessary to formulate agency positions, conduct project reviews, and provide technical assistance and information regarding cultural landscape management.

    Skill in applying knowledge of current national issues and laws affecting historic properties, such as the Architectural Barriers Act, life safety, fire and health codes, and sustainable design in project and program management.

    Skill in incorporating related resource management disciplines, such as history, architecture, archeology, ethnography, and the natural sciences, in project and program management to ensure their proper consideration in research, planning, and treatment.

    Expertise in the Section 106 compliance process and skill in preparing and reviewing compliance documentation.

Inventory and Research
Entry Level

    Assists in conducting cultural landscape research projects related to the identification, documentation, and analysis and evaluation of landscape characteristics and associated features.

    Basic knowledge of policies, guidelines, and standards for conducting basic and applied research, particularly the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the National Register criteria.

    Basic knowledge of cultural landscape research, inventory, documentation, and analysis and evaluation methodologies and techniques.

    Basic knowledge of the National Park Service cultural resource inventories and their utility in cultural resource management, such as the Cultural Landscapes Inventory, List of Classified Structures, and Archeological Sites Inventory.
    Ability to apply applicable criteria, standards, and guidelines to cultural landscape research, inventory, documentation, and analysis and evaluation.

    Ability to conduct, with technical supervision and oversight, historical research, field investigations, data analysis, and to prepare reports, plans, specifications, and cost estimates to support planning for cultural landscape preservation.


Developmental Level

    Conducts and coordinates complex cultural landscape research projects related to the identification, documentation, and analysis and evaluation of landscape characteristics and associated features.

    Ability to determine the necessity for historical research, to develop suitable research designs, and conduct or oversee appropriate levels of documentary research and field investigation.

    Ability to interpret and apply policies, guidelines, and standards in conducting basic and applied research, particularly the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the National Register criteria.

    Ability to conduct and supervise cultural landscape research, inventory, documentation, and analysis and evaluation based on accepted methodologies, techniques, criteria, standards, and guidelines.

    Ability to prepare and supervise the preparation of reports, plans, specifications, and cost estimates to support planning for cultural landscape preservation, based on historical research, field investigations, and data analysis.

    Skill at documenting research, inventory, documentation, and analysis and evaluation both graphically and in narrative form.


Full Performance Level

    Conducts, coordinates, and supervises complex cultural landscape research projects related to the identification, documentation, and analysis and evaluation of landscape characteristics and associated features.

    Skill in determining the necessity for historical research developing suitable research designs, and conducting or overseeing appropriate levels of documentary research and field investigation.

    Expertise in the interpretation and application of policies, guidelines, and standards for conducting basic and applied research, particularly the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the National Register criteria.

    Skill in conducting and supervising cultural landscape research, inventory, documentation, and analysis and evaluation based on accepted methodologies and techniques and developing unprecedented methodologies as appropriate.

    Skill in preparing and supervising the preparation of reports, plans, specifications, and cost estimates to support planning for cultural landscape preservation, based on historical research, field investigations, and data analysis.

Preservation Treatment and Maintenance
Entry Level

    Assists in the development and implementation of cultural landscape treatment plans and preservation maintenance programs.

    Basic knowledge of policies, standards, and guidelines related to the treatment of historic properties, particularly their application to cultural landscapes.

    Basic knowledge of natural resource policies, standards, and guidelines and the interrelationship of cultural and natural resources in the treatment, management, and maintenance of cultural landscapes.

    Basic knowledge of policies, standards, and guidelines regarding planning, design, and construction projects.

    Basic knowledge of the integration of allied disciplines, such as architecture, archeology, and natural resources in prescribing treatment and management activities.

    Basic knowledge of maintenance management practices and systems (e.g., NPS Maintenance Management System and the Inventory and Condition Assessment Program).

    Ability to apply, with technical supervision and oversight, policies, standards, and guidelines and prepare reports, plans, specifications, and cost estimates to support planning, treatment, and maintenance.

    Ability to work effectively with park operations responsible for cultural landscape management.


Developmental Level

    Serves as professional advisor regarding treatment and preservation maintenance of cultural landscapes. Develops and implements treatment plans and preservation maintenance programs.

    Knowledge of policies, standards, and guidelines related to the treatment of historic properties, particularly their application to cultural landscapes.

    Knowledge of natural resource policies, standards, and guidelines and the interrelationship of cultural and natural resources in the treatment, management, and maintenance of cultural landscapes.

    Knowledge of present construction practices and materials and their interaction with historic conditions sufficient to prescribe treatment and maintenance.

    Ability to facilitate the integration of cultural and natural resource management issues in prescribing treatment and maintenance practices.

    Ability to interpret and apply policies, standards, and guidelines in prescribing treatment and maintenance in a manner that protects both cultural and natural resource values.

    Ability to prepare reports, plans, specifications, and cost estimates to support treatment and maintenance.

    Ability to coordinate and carry out the implementation of treatment and maintenance projects including contract management.

    Ability to participate in interdisciplinary activities regarding preservation planning and treatment projects.

    Ability to incorporate necessary measures to protect historic and archeological resources in the implementation of treatment projects and maintenance practices.

    Ability to work effectively with park operations responsible for cultural landscape management in developing treatment and maintenance solutions.

    Ability to apply and integrate the Section 106 compliance process into treatment and maintenance projects and advise park operations on practices that avoid adverse actions.


Full Performance Level

    Serves as professional advisor regarding treatment and preservation maintenance of cultural landscapes. Develops and implements treatment plans and preservation maintenance programs.

    Expertise in the application of cultural and natural resource policies, standards, and guidelines in prescribing treatment and maintenance in a manner that protects both cultural and natural resource values.

    Skill in facilitating interdisciplinary participation, review, and/or comment in prescribing treatment and maintenance practices in order to integrate all relevant cultural and natural resource management issues.

    Skill in incorporating present construction practices and materials with historic conditions in prescribing treatment and maintenance.

    Skill in incorporating measures which protect historic and archeological evidence in the implementation of treatment projects and maintenance practices.

    Skill in preparing and supervising the preparation of reports, plans, specifications, and cost estimates to support treatment and maintenance.

    Skill in coordinating and executing the implementation of treatment and maintenance projects including contract management.

    Skill in working effectively with park operations responsible for cultural landscape management in developing treatment and maintenance solutions.

    Ability to evaluate and mitigate the impact of maintenance practices on cultural landscapes.

Project and Program Management
Entry Level

    Assists in project management for a wide variety of work including complex research, planning, design, and construction projects.

      A. Program Management

      Basic knowledge of goals, objectives, initiatives of the Servicewide Cultural Landscape Program.
      Ability to assist in ongoing strategic planning including developing and prioritizing program goals, objectives, and initiatives.

      Knowledge of professional organizations, such as the American Society of Landscape Architects and the Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation, academic institutions, and other private/public groups that share and obtain state-of-the-art information on cultural landscape preservation and professional practice.

      B. Project Management

      Basic knowledge of allied fields such as planning, architecture, archeology, and the natural resource sciences.

      Basic knowledge of current policies, guidelines, standards and technical information regarding cultural landscape preservation.

      Basic knowledge of Section 106 laws, regulations, and procedures.

      Ability to apply, with technical supervision and oversight, policies, guidelines, standards and technical information to project work.

      Ability to apply and integrate, with technical supervision and oversight, the Section 106 compliance process in project management.

      Ability to assist in conducting projects reviews and provides input regarding agency positions and direction.

      Ability to participate in interdisciplinary management activities.

      Ability to assist in the management of contract and cooperative agreement work, such as tracking scopes of work, budgets, and technical review of products.


Developmental Level

    Serves as project manager for a wide variety of work including complex research, planning, design, and construction projects and assists in the ongoing development of a comprehensive cultural landscape program.

      A. Program Management

      Thorough knowledge of the goals, objectives, initiatives of the Servicewide Cultural Landscape Program.

      Ability to assist in ongoing strategic planning including developing and prioritizing program goals, objectives, and initiatives.

      Ability to assist in long-term resource management planning regarding cultural landscape research, planning, and treatment.

      Ability to act as a liaison for the cultural landscape program with other offices of the National Park Service, professional organizations, such as the American Society of Landscape Architects and the Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation, academic institutions, and other private/ public groups to share and obtain state-of-the-art information on cultural landscape preservation and professional practice.

      Ability to develop partnerships to assist in accomplishing the goals and objectives of the cultural landscape programs.
      B. Project Management

      Knowledge of the legal and administrative requirements of services and construction contracts and cooperative agreement law, policies, guidelines, and management.

      Knowledge of the legislation and agency requirements of Historic Property Leasing, Agricultural Leasing, Special Use Permits, and Partnership Agreements.

      Ability to work cooperatively as a team with professionals in allied fields, such as planning, architecture, archeology, and the natural resource sciences and ability to serve as team leader on a project.

      Ability to provide review of complex projects and recommend agency positions and direction.

      Ability to organize and coordinate complex projects involving multiple disciplines.

      Ability to serve as the Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative in architectural/engineering services contracts and construction contracts.

      Skill in interpreting and applying policies, standards, and guidelines in a manner that protects both cultural and natural resource values.

      Skill in oversight and technical review of products produced by cooperators and contractors.

      Skill in conducting and supervising Section 106 compliance procedures and participating in conflict resolution.


Full Performance Level

    Serves as program manager of comprehensive cultural landscape program and/or project manager for a wide variety of work including complex research, planning, design, and construction projects.

      A. Program Management

      Skill in conducting long-range planning and budget formulation based on knowledge of the National Park Service budget process.

      Ability to facilitate ongoing strategic planning including developing and prioritizing program goals, objectives, and initiatives.

      Skill in coordinating cultural landscape program activities with other park operational programs, such as historic structures, integrated pest management, and maintenance management.

      Skill in being a liaison for the cultural landscape program with other offices of the National Park Service, professional organizations, such as the American Society of Landscape Architects and the Alliance for Historic Landscape Preservation, academic institutions, and other private/public groups to share and obtain state-of-the-art information on cultural landscape preservation and professional practice.

      Skill in developing proposals, cooperative agreements, memoranda of understanding with appropriate organizations to carry out the objectives of the cultural landscape program.

      B. Project Management

      Expertise in the interpretation and application of cultural and natural resource policies, standards, and guidelines in a manner which protects both cultural and natural resource values.

      Ability to assist in the development and monitoring of Historic Property Leasing, Agricultural Leasing, Special Use Permits, and Partnership Agreements based on legislative and agency requirements.

      Skill in interdisciplinary team work with professionals in allied fields such as planning, architecture, archeology, and the natural resource sciences and the ability to serve as team leader on a project.

      Skill in providing expert review of complex projects and articulating clear agency positions and direction.

      Skill in serving as the Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative in architectural/engineering services contracts and construction contracts.

      Skill in oversight and technical review of products produced by cooperators and contractors.

      Extensive knowledge of Section 106 compliance laws, regulations, and procedures.

      Skill in conducting and supervising Section 106 compliance procedures and participating in conflict resolution.

Communications
Entry Level

    Communicates, interprets, and presents cultural landscape preservation as an integral component of the National Park Service’s mission and research, treatment, and maintenance issues in cultural landscape management.

    Ability to articulate the role of cultural landscape preservation in the mission of the National Park Service verbally, graphically, and in writing.

    Ability to communicate research, treatment, maintenance, and management findings verbally, graphically, and in writing.

    Ability to use current computer software programs for written and graphic communication.

    Ability to assist in making presentations and preparing papers regarding cultural landscape management for professional conferences and journals.

    Knowledge and understanding of the importance of public interpretation of cultural landscapes and the techniques for conveying cultural landscape information to the public.


Developmental Level

    Communicates, interprets, and presents cultural landscape preservation as an integral component of the National Park Service’s mission.

    Ability to make presentations and prepare papers regarding cultural landscape management for professional conferences and journals.

    Skill in articulating the role of cultural landscape preservation in the mission of the National Park Service verbally, graphically, and in writing.

    Skill in articulating complex landscape management issues verbally, graphically, and in writing.

    Skill in using standard computer software programs and the ability to select off-the-shelf software to improve written and graphic communication.

    Thorough knowledge of the techniques for interpreting the significance and character of cultural landscapes to the public.

    Ability to work as a team member in the design and implementation of interpretation programs and tools, such as brochures, videos, and walking tours.


Full Performance Level

    Communicates, interprets, and presents cultural landscape preservation as an integral component of the National Park Service’s mission.

    Skill in articulating the role of cultural landscape preservation in the mission of the National Park Service verbally, graphically, and in writing.

    Skill in articulating complex landscape management issues verbally, graphically, and in writing.

    Skill in using standard computer software programs and the ability to select off-the-shelf software to improve written and graphic communication.

    Skill in making presentations and preparing papers regarding cultural landscape management for professional conferences and journals.

    Ability to oversee the development and implementation of effective strategies to interpret the significance and character of cultural landscapes to the public.