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Swelling clays in stone can generate damaging stresses during a wetting or a drying cycle, which leads to deterioration of building stones such as Portland Brownstone. There are two primary types of swelling identified for clays: short-range, ordered intracrystalline swelling, and long-range, continuous osmotic swelling.

Identification of the swelling mode is important for understanding and ultimately preventing swelling damage. Through comparison of XRD and swelling experiments with cationic pretreatments and organic solvents, we demonstrate that intracrystalline swelling is the primary mode of swelling present in three different stones, including Portland Brownstone.The results highlight the importance of the counterbalancing cation to the swelling process, and a method for characterizing the intracrystalline swelling in sandstones is developed. Finally, the implications of long-term swelling behavior for stones are discussed.

This research was made possible through Grant MT-2210-07-NC-05 from the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT).

Related Resources:

Download “Clay swelling inhibition mechanism of α,ω-diaminoalkanes in Portland Brownstone (2007-09a)” 2007-09a.pdf – Downloaded 115 times – 4 MB

Download “Controlling Swelling of Portland Brownstone(2007-09b)” 2007-09b.pdf – Downloaded 98 times – 4 MB

Download “Swelling damage mechanism for clay-bearing sandstones(2007-09c)” 2007-09c.pdf – Downloaded 108 times – 2 MB

Download “Clay Swelling Mechanism in Clay-Bearing Sandstones(2007-09d)” 2007-09d.pdf – Downloaded 108 times – 418 kB

Download “Flaw Propagation and Buckling in Clay-bearing sandstones(2007-09e)” 2007-09e1.pdf – Downloaded 104 times – 689 kB

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