This report presents a review of the literature followed by recommendations based on best practices for the analysis of historic cement-based materials. The report is geared towards the practicing analyst. Test methods described with the report are for the identification of aggregate additives, cement material, pozzolana, and hydraulic materials in historic mortars. Air voids are also characterized. Test methods described include wet chemical analysis, thin-section petrographic analysis coupled with image analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Clays or organic materials are identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.