Two training courses were developed: Restoration of Historic Metals and Hot Riveting with a Field Rivet Hammer. The courses will be administered through the Business & Community Institute (BCI) of Lansing Community College and available starting with the Fall 2010 semester. These two courses are designed to accommodate small groups within business or government agencies such as engineering firms, consulting firms, or State and Federal transportation departments. The Business & Community Institute, “committed to economic growth and improving the quality of the area’s workforce” , has considerable experience serving the training needs of business and industry and is well equipped to advertise and offer these two courses. It was originally proposed that the Technical Careers Division of Lansing Community College offer the courses as part of its college curriculum, but it became clear that BCI would be better equipped to make sure the courses reach their intended audience and can be offered “on demand” as requested by businesses.
The courses are designed for those whose responsibility it is to write specifications for a scope-of- work or to make recommendations for the preservation of a historic metal structure. These include (but are not limited to) State Departments of Transportation, State Historic Preservation Offices, historians, historic preservationists, engineers, consultants, and contractors.
The training courses are meant to address the project’s goal to increase the number of designers, builders and others who can confidently specify rehabilitation procedures for the restoration of historic metals using current steel fabrication and historic technologies. The courses will give participants a better understanding of and sensitivity toward historic iron and steel bridges and other metal structures and their fabrication technologies, with hands-on experience in the repair and rehabilitation of historic metal structures using hot riveting and careful application of welding technology and related processes. The curriculum is guided by the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation, emphasizing that the replacement of historic structural members and connections with modern materials should be avoided when not necessary or when detrimental to the characteristics that give a historic metal structure its historical and technological significance.
The course Restoration of Historic Metals provides an introduction to processes for the repair of wrought iron, historic steels, and cast irons, including the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW), Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), and Oxygen Fuel Welding (OFW). The course has the following learning outcomes:
- Identify wrought iron, and historic steel and cast iron, and describe their properties
- Describe the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation
- Recognize historic manufacturing processes and their impact on the restoration of historic metals
- Identify the appropriate use of Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Gas Tungsten Arc welding (GTAW), and Oxygen Fuel Welding (OFW) processes.
- Make recommendations for the most efficient welding process for the restoration of a metal Identify the appropriate use of Oxygen Fuel (OF) cutting process including types of fuel gas available for the process and the metal most efficiently cut with the process.
- Identify appropriate use of the Air Carbon Arc (ACA) cutting process and the metal most efficiently cut
- Identify the appropriate use of the Plasma Arc cutting process and the metal most efficiently cut with the process.
- Describe and recommend heat straightening for the restoration of historic metal
- Demonstrate an understanding of welding and fabrication terms and definitions
The course Hot Riveting with a Field Rivet Hammer provides an introduction to the pneumatic field rivet hammer process for the restoration or replication of historic wrought iron or steel riveted connections. Included in the course is an introduction to the process of heating steel rivets to their proper temperature with a propane gas forge, driving rivets with a pneumatic field rivet hammer, removing age worn or defective rivets with the air carbon arc process and the oxygen fuel process, and removing pack rust with the pneumatic field rivet hammer. The course has the following learning outcomes:
- Demonstrate properly heating steel rivets in a propane gas forge
- Identify when the correct heat of a rivet is reached by the color of the heated rivet
- Identify the parts of a pneumatic field rivet hammer
- Properly buck-up (to hold a hot rivet in the rivet assembly hole) a heated rivet with a bucking bar or holder-on in preparation for driving a rivet
- Safely drive a heated rivet with a pneumatic field rivet hammer
- Safely remove age worn or defective wrought iron and steel rivets with a rivet buster
- Remove wrought iron and steel rivets with the air carbon arc and oxygen fuel torch
- Remove pack rust with a pneumatic field rivet hammer and buffer plate