Hallmarking of European silver probably originated in France in the thirteenth century and spread from there to other countries. The French standard for silver quality was established in 1260, the first use of a town mark was established in 1275, the individual maker’s mark was introduced in 1355, and the date letter system introduced in 1427.
In England, the silver standard mark was established in 1300 followed by the introduction of a maker’s mark in 1363, the town mark in 1423 and the date letter mark in 1478 . As the history and standards of hallmarking silver and gold objects from various countries is complex, it should be consulted on an individual basis.
2004-02 Image Recovery of Worn-Off Hallmarks on Silver and Gold Objects
2004-03 Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Imaging of Worn-Off Hallmarks on Silver: Preliminary Results
2004-04 Image Recovery of Worn-off Hallmarks on Silver and Gold Objects
2004-06 Non-Destructive Imaging of Worn-Off Hallmarks and Engravings from Metal Objects of Art Using Acoustic Microscopy
This research was made possible through Grant MT-2210-0-NC-21 from the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT).