- Previous studies include: National Library of the Czech Republic, Prague, and State Central Archives in Prague, “Study of the effect of drying methods on the physical chemical and microbiological properties of various kinds of paper,” January 2003, typescript; Søren Carlsen, “Effects of freeze drying on paper,” Preprint from the 9th International Congress of IADA, Copenhagen, August 15-21, 1999, retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007: http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/iada/ta99_115.pdf ; and, Hilary A. Kaplan and Kathleen A. Ludwig, “Efficacy of Various Drying Methods,” published online 27 Sept 2005 by the National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC, and retrieved from the World Wide Web 3 Sept 2007:
- Investigators for this project included: conservation administrators – Deborah Novotny (Head of Preservation, Collection Care, The British Library); Dr. Jiri Polisensky (Director of Preservation Division, National Library of the Czech Republic), and principal investigator Randy Silverman (Preservation Librarian, Marriott Library, University of Utah); research scientists – Barry Knight (Head of Conservation Research, British Library), Dr. Ji!í Neuvirt (Chemist, National Library of the Czech Republic), Hal Erickson (Researcher, University of Utah Health Sciences Center), and Miranda Bliss (Lab Manager, Applied Paper Technology, Inc.); microbiologists – Dr. Jan Francl (Chemist, National Library of the Czech Republic) and Niki Fidopiastis (Market Development Manager, Sterigenics); disaster drying specialists – Kirk Lively (Director of Technical Services, Belfor USA); and, Nicholas Yeager, (President, Artifex Equipment, Inc.), and bookseller Tony Weller (Owner, Sam Weller’s Zion Bookstore). Special thanks for creative input go to Olivia Primanis (Senior Conservator, Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin).
- While vacuum freeze drying and thermal drying were part of this study, these techniques must not be confused with similarly-named with thermal vacuum drying (TVD), in which bulk liquid water is boiled away at the intermediately-elevated temperatures permitted by a vacuum chamber, or thermal vacuum freeze drying, (TVFD) in which a proprietary method of thermally-aided flattening is applied to vacuum freeze dried materials. TVD and TVFD were not considered for testing due to significant limitations but have been summarized in the work by Hilary A. Kaplan and Kathleen A. Ludwig, cited above.
- VeloBind combs, developed by the General Binding Corporation (now merged with ACCO) are inserted into perforated leaf edges in a proprietary quick binding method. The combs – various called “spines” or “hot knife strips” – are available from office supply companies
specializing in quick binding equipment.
- Temperature in vacuum freeze drying is critical. Heat is required to provide the energy for sublimation, but increasing the drying temperature causes cellulose damage. Some vendors refer to their product as “vacuum freeze drying,” but introduce an excess of heat (TVD), e.g., 54 C (130°F), to accelerate the sublimation. While faster turnaround of treatment batches potentially increases profit for the service provider, it results in permanent damage to paper.
- 100% polyester nonwoven polyolefin sheet.
- Bondina is a proprietary non-woven polyester material with a smooth surface that facilitates release.
- Details on Conservation By Design’s Archipress Vacuum Packing Machine retrieved from the
World Wide Web 3 Sept 2007:
- The Vacme Press and Zorbix are available exclusively from: Artifex Equipment, Inc., 9595 Main St., #1, P.O .Box 319, Penngrove, CA 94951 USA; cel. (707) 331-0237; email@example.com; http://www.artifexequipment.com. Designed by Artifex Equipment, Inc.
and the United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Library, Zorbix is a super absorbent polymer embedded in a sheet of blotting paper able to absorb 50 times its weight in water.
- Paper samples were tested by or under the supervision of two of the authors (Miranda Bliss and Barry Knight) at their respective institutions. Tests included: tensile strength and stretch-to-break (ISO 1924-2) (machine direction and cross-machine direction: maximum load, strain %, and tensile energy absorption): tearing resistance (ISO 1974) (machine direction and cross-machine direction, mN/ply): and MIT folding endurance (ISO 5626) (machine direction and cross-machine direction; note that # of double-folds (#DF) is deprecated in favor of log10#DF).
- Conservation By Design Limited is the sole manufacturer of the Archipress Vacuum Packing Machine and Polyester Vacuum Pouches. Three models available sell for £2652.00 ($5,331.83); £4604.00 ($9,256.32); and £6528.00 ($13,124.51); retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007: http://www.conservation-by-design.co.uk/equipment/archipress4.html. Dissatisfaction has been reported by some who used a vacuum packing machine following the 2004 floods in the Czech Republic because of damage caused to fragile books by the significant pressure applied by the pouch, and mold that formed inside of incompletely sealed pouches.
- Pressing can only be applied to semi-dry books printed on uncoated paper. Books wholly or partially printed on coated stock must have every coated leaf separated with silicon release or waxed paper interleaving and allowed to thoroughly dry prior to pressing. Cockling is therefore maximized by air drying books of this type and alternative drying methods are suggested.
- See, Soren Carlson, “Effects of Freeze Drying on Paper,” in Preprint from the 9 International Congress of IADA, Copenhagen, 15-21 August, 1999” 115-120. Retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007: http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/iada/ta99_115.pdf
- John H. Haines and Stuart A. Kohler, “An evaluation of ortho-phenyl phenol as a fungicidal fumigant for archives and libraries,” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 25/1 (1986): 49-55. Retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007: http://aic.stanford.edu/jaic/articles/jaic25-01-005.html and, Northeast Document Conservation Center, “Preservation Leaflets: 7.5 Conservation Treatment for Works of Art and Unbound Artifacts on Paper,”(n/d);
Retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007:
- Fausta P. Gallo, “Methyl bromide, ethylene oxide and ethylene formaldehyde: biological and toxicological problems and problems related to treatment of library materials,” Nuovi annale d’igiene, f. microbiologia 29/1 (1978): 51-82.
- Fiona J. Butterfield, “The potential long-term effects of gamma irradiation on paper,” Studies in Conservation 32 (1987): 181-191.
- Manuela da Silvaa, A.M.L. Moraesb, M.M. Nishikawaa, M.J.A. Gattic, M.A. Vallim de Alencard, L.E. Brandãod and A. Nóbregac, “Inactivation of fungi from deteriorated paper materials by radiation,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 57/3 (April 2006):
163-167; Giuseppe Magaudda, “The recovery of biodeteriorated books and archive documents through gamma radiation: some considerations on the results achieved,” Journal of Cultural Heritage 5/1 (January-March 2004): 113-118; M. Adamo, M. Brizzi, G. Magaudda, G. Martinelli, M. Plossi-Zappalà, F. Rocchetti and F. Savagnone, “Gamma radiation treatment of paper in different environmental conditions,” Restaurator 22 (2001): 107-131; M. Adamo, M. Giovannotti, G. Magaudda, M. Plossi-Zappalà, F. Rocchetti, F. Savagnone and G. Rossi, “Effect of gamma rays on pure cellulose paper as a model for the study of a treatment of biological recovery of biodeteriorated books,” Restaurator 19 (1998): 41-59; John Havermans, Katarzyna Ziba, Thomasz Lojewski, “New insights on disinfection of archival and library materials using gamma radiation,” American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 35th
Annual Meeting 16-20 April 2007, Book and Paper Abstracts, retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007: http://aic.stanford.edu/meetings/abstracts/bpg_abstracts.html
- Reports dealing with ethylene oxide induced damage include: Mary-Lou E. Florian, “Ethylene oxide fumigation: A literature review of the problems and interactions with materials and substances in artifacts,” in L.A. Zycherman and J.R. Schrock (eds.), A guide to museum pest
control (Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works and Association of Systematics Collections, 1988): 151-158. Mary-Lou Florian, “The effect on artifact materials of the fumigant ethylene oxide and freezing used in insect control,” in K. Grimstad (ed.), ICOM Committee for Conservation: 8th triennial meeting, Sydney, Australia, 6-11 September, 1987, Preprints, vol. 1 (1987): 199-208; and, L. Green and V. Daniels, “Investigation of the residues formed in the fumigation of museum objects using ethylene
oxide,” in J. Black (comp.), Recent advances in the conservation and analysis of artifacts, (London: University of London, Institute of Archaeology, Summer Schools Press [for] University of London, 1987): 309-313.
- Françoise Flieder and Christine Capderou, Sauvegarde des Collections du Patrimonie (Paris: CNRS Editions, 1999): 141-179. The authors gratefully acknowledge the kindness of Eléonore Kissel who translated this work for our use.
- Frank H. Hengemihle, Norman Weberg and Chandru J. Shahani, “Desorption of residual ethylene oxide from fumigated library materials,” Preservation Research and Testing Series No. 9502, Preservation Research and Testing Office, Library of Congress (November 1995): n/p.
Retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007:
- Hengemihle, Weberg and Shahani, Ibid.
- U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), “Regulations (Standards – 29 CFR): Ethylene oxide. – 1910.1047. “1910.1047(c)(1) 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). The employer shall ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne
concentration of EtO in excess of one (1) part EtO per million parts of air (1 ppm) as an (8)-hour time-weighted average (8-hour TWA).” Retrieved from the World Wide Web 6 July 2007:
- Plasma fumigation relies on radio waves. Wet, moldy books are placed inside a vacuum chamber, a vacuum is pulled, and the chamber is backfilled with an inert gas. Radio waves directed within the chamber convert the inert gas to argon, nitrogen and helium and draw hydrogen molecules from all water within the vacuum. Creating plasma energy in this way damages the DNA of mold, destroying is viability. More on the application of plasma fumigation to sterilization of library material can be found at Midwest Freeze Dry Ltd. (7326 N. Central Park, Skokie, IL. 60076) http://www.midwestfreezedry.com/pestinfestation.html